How quickly does Subwassertang grow? This plant is great for most setups, with many freshwater tanks already fulfilling the necessary criteria. Subwassertang is very hardy and will tolerate a wide range of aquarium parameters and water conditions. If you are buying this plant from local hobbyists then make sure you quarantine the plant properly as its super easy for snails and other hitchhikers to hide in it. Basically, this plant does not even have a scientific name. Aesthetics: Subwassertang can be used to create artistic effects that complement the visuals of an aquarium. In 1849, this plant was described by British botanist, Monosolenium tenerum has a very limited subtropical, Difference between Monosolenium tenerum, Subwassertang, and Riccia Fluitans, under optimal conditions, Monosolenium tenerum can grow like crazy and quicklyovertake. Fissidens Fontanus. Silver dollars, Bueno Aires tetras, Koi fish, Goldfish, Oscars, Rainbow, Jack Dempsey, Clown loaches, African Cichlids. Actually, by doing so you will increase its growth rate. Great for shrimp tanks and breeding setups! This is usually the case when they dont get enough light or too much fertilizer is added to the tank at once. Temperature: The optimal temperature for growing Monosolenium tenerum is between the range of 68 82 F (20 28 C). Being that the tank is covered, lighting can rest above the glass cover in the . I mail ordered it from OMG aquatics though, and have no idea how it was grown. Every aquarium enthusiast, whether a beginner or a veteran, may run into issues when trying to grow aquarium plants, treat their diseases, etc. Monosolenium tenerum can fit in any type of vessel and tank regardless of the size. Christmas Moss. Anubias grows faster when emersed, you will notice their leaves growing larger and thicker. Otherwise, you will have algae everywhere. This is primarily because this plant mainly extracts nutrients from the water column. They use it as a food source too. Subwasswertang is simple to plant as it has no roots. If you see that the plant grows too thickly (thalli are touching and overlapping one another), it is time to divide it. Like any live plant, it can come with pests and parasites, which can harm the fish and the plant itself. They will eat and uproot everything in the tank. In German swasser means freshwater and tang means seaweed. Class: Polypodiopsida Subwassertang is a must-have for shrimp tanks. I will right away grab your rss feed as I cant find your e-mail subscription link or e-newsletter service. So, do not try to shove it into the substrate. It does not have any roots and can float or sink into your aquarium. Subwassertang is a floating aquatic plant for any type of aquarium due to its low lighting requirements. *Note: A perennial plant is a plant that lives more than two years. This will create an artistic illusion of plants floating in your aquarium. SubwassertangCare Guide Planting, Growing, and Propagation. Removal of excess nutrients: Subwassertang is beneficial in neutralizing toxins and heavy metals in the tank. It is a well-known fact that these invertebrates are plant destructive (read my introduction to crayfish care). Even though Subwassertang is relatively easy to care for, there are some problems that they could encounter. The minimum tank size for growing this plant is 2.5 gallons (10 liters). Subwassertang is perfect for shrimp tanks. They often use the plant to forage for food and hide if necessary. It really depends on your goals and it will not take over your tank anytime soon 2023 FAQS Clear - All Rights Reserved The name Subwassertang is erroneously spelt instead of Swassertang, in this case the letter is a German grapheme called Eszett which represents an s phoneme in German orthography, Swassertang is therefore pronounced as Ssswassertang. Score: 4.7/5 (53 votes) . Water Hardness: Even though Subwassertang can tolerate a wide range of water hardness. We know that it can grow by attaching itself to trees and rocks, even in dry rivers. (Marchantiopsida, Monosoleniaceae) in Nepal.Cryptogamie Bryologie(2007). For a long time, aquarists considered this plant as not algae, moss or liverwort plant which recent studies indicate is actually a type of fern. Take a plastic mesh and suction cups to hold Monosolenium tenerum against the tank walls. It has a striking resemblance with the liverwort species Monosolenium tenerum which is erroneously called Pellia. Under lighting conditions, it will grow at a visibly fast rate and release a great deal of oxygen in the tank. That being said, like all other plants they grow much faster when fertilizers and CO2 are added to the tank. By performing photosynthesis, it consumes the carbon dioxide produced from the fish and releases oxygen into the water column. Most aquarists just throw the plant in the tank and let it do its thing. You can also place Subwassertang in rock or wood crevices and create dramatic scapes. Having such a thin cell wall may cause it to burn and die quicker. Though on a fern gametophyte I would expect those to be pretty small. Keeps your aquarium water rich in oxygen. At our aquarium, we had it smaller than 1 cm (0.3 in), and after a few months, it covered almost half of all the aquarium space. Although Monosolenium tenerum does not produce roots, its leaves have numerous rhizoids that serve as roots and help in anchoring the plant. Maintaining this plant is very easy and will not need anything special. This is a 55 gallon tank, Fluval 3.0 Plant Light, unheated, with a Fluval 407 canister filter, CO2 injected, fertilized with osmocote in Seachem Flourite substrate, and Thrive liquid fertilizer in the water column. Hi Lyndall Simon, When the clumps are getting too dense or growing out of shape, you should prune it to keep it compact. Growth rate: It is one of those plants that can take a long time to adapt to new parameters. Bright illumination causes more compact and bushier growth. While their differences are distinguishable, they are similar in appearance. Note: There are also many reports that Subwassertang does not like high light in the tanks, it can melt away. Land colonization by plants started in the middle of Ordovician period (about 470 million years ago). Monosolenium tenerum is a perennial plant* that comprises a thallus. As mentioned above, Subwassertang is a water column feeder plant, which means it does not need soil or substrate. This fern plant will continue to grow and replicate at all times and never pass its gametophyte stage. The reason for your Red Root Floater dying might be connected with too much surface agitation in your tank. The name Subwassertang stems from the German words swasser and tang, which means freshwater seaweed.. Subwassertang may be a hardy plant, but it doesnt react well to sudden changes in water parameters. This plant is fairly hardy with a slow growth rate. Interesting fact: According to the study, because there was only one known introduction by Kasselman into the aquatic trade, it can be reasonably assumed that all of the plants currently being sold are exact clones of each other and have reproduced entirely by continuous meristematic growth. I didn't go as far as to weight the dry masses, but from simply looking at it, I'm guessing 30-40% more growth compared to non-CO2. Since these plants dont have a root system, you can attach them to driftwood rocks and decorations or even let them float in the water. Hiding place for fish, fry, and shrimp:Monosolenium tenerum will serve as a cover and hiding place for inverts and small fish. Hemianthus callitrichoides (HC) is one such plant that can be heavily debated as to whether it's best to buy it in its submersed form over the emersed grown HC. You should avoid hostile, aggressive diggers and voracious, Do not keep Dwarf Sagittaria with crayfish or crabs. In other words, technically, this plant does not have organized and distinct parts (such as leaves and stems). It works as a good source of food for shrimps, mostly for baby shrimps. However, in the beginning, it grows pretty slow, therefore, the consumption rate can be pretty low as well. Invasiveness: Every broken part of the plant starts to grow. Top 10 Low Light Aquarium Plants. Subwassertang is commonly confused for Monosolenium Tenerum aka Mini Pellia, due to a similar appearance and structure but can be distinguished by its slight transparency and darker tone. This plant does not need any special type of care to thrive, This means they are one of the best beginner plants available in the pet hobby. Drastic changes will result in the plant melting, and its thin structure often starts to turn brown. If it is your cases, give Subwassertang a shot. The only way to make the plants grow faster would be to increase the CO2 levels inside the container to roughly 2.5x the normal atmospheric concentrations but not higher, this might be a bit tricky . Subwassertang while slow growing can reach around 10-15cm a year in diameter and it does very well free-floating or attached to things like driftwood or rocks, it can also If you are thinking of keeping Subwassertang in your aquarium, this guide will guide you through the whole process of planting and maintaining it. 2016 - 2023 GLASS AQUA | Let Nature Unfold | Learn About Us | Affiliate Program. You can use Porous rocks and wait for the plant to grow bigger, and then you re-tie it to form a ball. Subwassertang is a slow-grower, but has the potential to grow out of control if placed in an aquarium with higher lighting, CO2 injection and nutrient dosing. One benefit is its use as an aesthetic plant for an aquascape. It's been in my tank for 2 weeks and a day. I'll update this more tonight with pics of the emersed stuff. This includes nano tanks to large-scale aquascape setups. Since Subwassertang doesnt have any roots, it can be challenging to attach to things. This fern gametophyte never develops further and continues to grow and replicate staying as a gametophyte. They are susceptible to hair algae, especially in hard water environments. On this blog, I share all the things I learn about shrimp breeding as I go. They are slow-growing plants that grow continuously throughout the year. Therefore, tying the plant loosely to an object will ensure it stays put and wont be crushed when it grows. I always recommend to quarantine or sterilize any plant first (using bleach to get rid of parasites and treating them with alum to eliminate snails) before putting it into your tank! It is a well-known fact that these invertebrates are plant destructive (, They can have parasites, pests like snails, or even predators (. Mine melted when first introduced to my tanks, all it takes is a little bit left to grow once mine got started it took off though! Order: Polypodiales To differentiate Subwassertang from Liverwort you will have to touch the plant. As with any other aquatic plant, unstable parameters can lead to plant rotting. on top of moist substrate, keep it wet and it will do fine (general liverwort care applies). However, there are a few key points you will need to consider in order to prevent any die-off and to make your plant thrive. Yes it works but its ugly. Your email address will not be published. Subwassertang (Swassertang) was coined from the German words swasser which stands for freshwater and tang which means sea weed. Subwassertang is a leafy brush aquatic plant that you must have in your aquarium. Fry tank keepers should consider keeping this plant too. Ssswassertang (aka Subwassertang) is a freshwater fern plant native to SouthEast Asia which is sometimes called Loma fern or round pellia. Monosolenium tenerum (previously known as Pellia endiviifolia) is a very controversial plant with an interesting history. If your aquarium has low flow, we recommend letting them float in the tank. There is no need to remove thread or fishing line, the plant will grow and cover it. Biologists assume that Subwassertang originates in tropical parts of Asia and Africa. As a free-floating plant, you can entirely remove it from your tank, and it leaves no wase behind. The lush green and dense growth form of the plant makes it easy for aquarists to create dramatic effects in the tanks. Try to tie your thread as much as you can so it wont be floating into the aquarium. Thus, Monosolenium tenerum can be translated asa delicate plant that grows alone in the shadows. They presume that Subwassertang is a species of Lomariopsis grown in the tropical parts of Asia. Marimo Moss Ball: CARE, GROWTH RATE, Propagation & More, Rosy barb: Care, Size, Lifespan, Diet & More. Subwassertang is an extremely popular aquatic plant commonly used in planted aquariums that resembles seaweed. Next, fold the plastic mesh net in half, sustain the folded nets with the suction cups and then carefully stuff the plant inside each end to form a wall. You might need to prune this plant once or twice yearly and thats it. Thank you very much for this very informative lesson on Subwassertang , I just found some locally . Monosolenium tenerum Griff. Subwassertang while slow growing can reach around 10-15cm a year in diameter and it does very well free-floating or attached to things like driftwood or rocks, it can also self-attach itself to things like glass in your aquariums so think of the growth of this plant like a spreading bacteria in a culture plate, I use . It also provides a perfect hiding spot for shrimp and livebearer fish fry and helps them stay safe from predators. It can be found from Northeastand NortheastIndia, southern China, and Taiwan to southern Japan. You can use sharp cutters or scissors to cut off pieces and carefully attach them to driftwood or place them back in the water. This makes them a super easy plant to maintain. Hard to attach: Subwassertang does not have roots. Plants Quarantine. Although this peculiar plant looks like a moss or liverwort, it is neither and is most closely related to Lomariopsis Lineata. It also serves as a spawning and/or breeding place for egg scatterers. Oxygenation: Helps in oxygenation by actively promoting the availability of oxygen-rich water. Many aquarists noticed that Monosolenium tenerum responds positively to a high level of phosphates (1.5 2 mg/l range) in the water. Another benefit to planting Subwassertang is that they provide a habitat for small fish and invertebrates. I have two small mats of subwassertang that just arrived. Subwassertang plant is a good option for a community tank that has different types of fish, including those that may not be very gentle with plants. JavaScript is disabled. To propagate Subwassertang in tanks, simply break off small portions of it, attach it to a hardscape and it will grow into a whole new plant. You may need to trim it if you need a perfect ball. Having Otocinclus species and Bristlenose Plecos also help with preventing algae growth on the plant and both fish will not eat Subwassertang. Hardness: Monosolenium tenerum is a very adaptable plant, it can thrive in soft water to hard water with values of 2 16 GH. They will grow slowly in spots when the current is not strong. Versatility: Monosolenium tenerum is one of the plants that can grow emersed and submersed. Subwassertang Melting, Dying, and Other Problems, Subwassertang for Aquarium Fish and Invertebrates, Hydrocotyle Verticillata: Ultimate Care Guide, Ozelot Sword (Echinodorus Ozelot): Ultimate Care Guide, Hygrophila Angustifolia (Hygrophila Corymbosa Angustifolia): Care Guide, Grows slowly, approximately 10 cm (4 inches) a year, Not required, but additional Co2 injection may increase the growth rate. If you see that the plant grows too thickly (thalli are touching and overlapping one another), it is time to divide it. Subwassertangexhibits an epiphytic behavior, it also grows on rocks in periodically dry rivers. From plastic /glass containers, jars, vases to large tanks. While there is much to learn about Subwassertang, it is interesting to uncover the full potential of this unique plant. The first thing you need to check is to see if they get enough light and fertilization or not. Will it bounce back? Pros and Cons. Silver dollars, Bueno Aires tetras, Koi fish, Goldfish, Oscars, Rainbow, Jack Dempsey, Clown loaches, African Cichlids. Unless you are going to keep it in a paludarium setup with free excess CO2. The leaves produced differ depending on how the Bolbitis is grown: single to double pinnate and light green when submersed; single pinnate, darker green and hard when emersed. Hiding place for fish, fry, and shrimp: The dense clumps of Subwassertang provides hiding spots for shrimp and helps them keep safe from predators. Yes. Subwassertang while slow growing can reach around 10-15cm a year in diameter and it does very well free-floating or attached to things like driftwood or rocks, it can also self-attach itself to things like glass in your aquariums so think of the growth of this plant like a spreading bacteria in a culture plate, I use . They love to play in it and pick on it. Another option is to attach clumps of Subwassertang to an acrylic ledge which is then held on the aquarium glass by suction cups. Subwassertang does not require a lot of water flow to grow. Therefore, placing the live plant in a separate quarantine tank for a period of time is always recommended. But when I went to pull off the superglue, some of the subwassertang had attached itself to the wood. See more Reply Save In nature, it can thrive in cold temperatures. You should avoid hostile, aggressive diggers and voracious plant-eaters, that will waste no time in tearing up the plants and fighting other fish in the tank. Subwassertang will also grow well in low lighting conditions, however it comes at an expense which is a slightly slower growth and dull appearance. In many cases, it takes weeks and even months for Subwassertang to start growing. Subwassertang is a great alternative to aquatic moss such as Java Moss, Christmas Moss, and Weeping Moss. Click here to shop all aquarium plants! This includes Oscar fish and Silver Dollars, as they will eat Subwassertang rather quickly. Get a piece of the plant, a thread, and wood or rock, and you are ready to go. This is usually the main reason. Pellia and Mini-Pellia (Also spelled Pelia) are both Liverworts. In addition, its growth form largely depends on the CO2, nutrition, and lighting in the tank. The propagation of Subwassertang is by splitting. Monosolenium tenerum can grow submerged or partially submerged. When You Breathe In Your Diaphragm Does What. The etymology of theLatinword Monosolenium is unclear. Keep it close to 100% humidity as you can. Root tabs are dissolvable tablets or capsules that contain plant fertilizer. This gives plenty of room for the plants to grow above the water's surface. When it breaks off, all these tiny chunks will spread around the tank and start growing there. It often starts turning brown. Subwassertang can be commonly spotted in shrimp tanks and breeding project tanks since it provides an ideal environment for young fry. As alternatives, you can choose Subwassertang and Crystalwort, these plants look similar but stay in a clump better than Monosolenium tenerum. If used in this manner, a mound of emersed stem tips can look like a small island in the back of the tank. While chemical treatment is often used before introducing new plants to an aquarium, this may not be the best solution for Subwassertang. Due to the fact that Monosolenium tenerum is heavier than water, it will find a spot it likes. When adding Subwassertang to an aquarium, be sure to quarantine the plant. It can grow to quite a size then, so I may need to trim it, as Java moss grows about 2-3mm per day. You can also stick small portions of Subwassertang into a crevice of wood or rock, this will make it look like it just happened to grow there naturally. The point is that: However, Subwassertang is one sell thick; therefore, it is very sensitive to treatments. Shrimps use Subwassertang as a source of food. Monosolenium tenerum can be recognized by its relatively thin, dark green, and fork-like branched thalli. Even though they may be clones, these plants have shown their adaptability. Will those little green specks become individual clusters or will the whole plant green back up over time. Subbwassertang grows very fast and easily; in a few weeks after planting, you will have a nice leafy brush of Subwassertang. . In terms of growing conditions of Subwassertang, it prefers low to medium light and temperatures of 68-70 degrees Fahrenheit. Subwassertang (Lomariopsis Lineata), also known as Susswassertang, is a popular aquarium plant that was discovered in the early 2000s. Subwassertang is probably one of the best plants for shrimp tanks as its super easy to care for and for its low light requirements. Some aquascapers like to create a Subwassertang carpet as well. Im Michael and this is the place where I nerd out about shrimp. Subwassertang can grow very easily with no additional requirements. It still prefers soft water, this could be in the range of 0 8 dGH. well, I dont want to bother people with such messages. It all depends on your choice and purpose. Many aquarists noticed that Monosolenium tenerum responds positively to a high level of, Care and Maintenance of Monosolenium Tenerum, The propagative means of Monosolenium tenerum is. A high water flow may make the plant float around in the tank and this might even make some parts of the plant to break off. Subwassertang is a hardy plant and a close substitute for the renowned Java moss. 2023 Next Aquarium | All Rights Reserved. While they are clearly different in appearance, they share many desirable characteristics of an aquarium plant. I am Mario, a experienced fish keepr and the editor-in-chief of Epic Aquarium. Each thallus has a thickened midrib and thinner semi-translucent wings with wavy margins. It is a great plant for fry and shrimp to hide in, roam freely and stay safe from predatory species. Don't think you can grow it emersed so it doesn't really matter. Frankly saying, it looks way better than what the pictures or videos show. Monosolenium tenerum will grow through the mesh and soon cover all the spaces. Click 'SHOW MORE' for full video description and linksI've been asked like 100 times . You can trim it just if it grows bigger than you expected. Exactly half of my plants are melting/dying. Subwassertang is fairly hardy regardless of its small size and delicate appearance, its growth is slow but these changes as soon as it acclimatizes to the new environment. Fish Lore's aquarium fish forum - aquarium hobbyists helping hobbyists since 2005! It was first used in an aquarium environment by Christel Kasselmann in 2001 which was then slowly introduced to different pet markets around the world. As the plant grows and spreads, it can provide your species with a natural place to hide, and shrimps can use it as a food source. Come join the discussion about collections, displays, tanks, styles, troubleshooting, reviews, accessories, classifieds, and more! Who Can Benefit From Diaphragmatic Breathing? Best regards, Regarding CO2 injection for Subwassertang, it is not a requirement. Dwarf Chain Loach Detailed Guide: Care, Diet, and Breeding. Brittle structure:Monosolenium tenerum is pretty brittle and cannot withstand pressure. The rhizoids are often grouped and located at irregular distances on the underside and also near the margin of the thallus. This involves breaking off pieces from the plant bunch and attaching them to surfaces or hardscapes. This aquatic plant exhibits similar growth to that of mosses and will self-attach to aquarium decor, stones and driftwood that provide a suitable foundation. Both these are signs that the plant is dying. You can attach the plant to objects using a fishing line or Gel Super Glue. For a better experience, please enable JavaScript in your browser before proceeding. You are using an out of date browser. Yang, Bao-Yu. On the one hand, this is a very easy plant to grow because Monosolenium tenerum doesnt require a substrate and can thrive in a wide range of water parameters. Disclosure: participates in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for publishers to earn fees by linking to and affiliated sites. Fish species like Silver Dollar, Oscars, Cichlids. Double SS is not a Z, as a Z in German is pronounced TZ like blitz (not the English Z). Species: Lomariopsis sp. Monosolenium tenerum does not require any substrate. Michael, Your email address will not be published. Your email address will not be published. It prefers mostly colder water, and we suggest it to keep in a temperature between 68 86 F (20 30 C). One of the major reasons why it is in my good books is because it can grow successfully without CO2 and fertilizer application. It does not require CO2 or fertilizer to grow which makes them a great shrimp tank plant. They require nothing more than occasional water changes and minimum lighting to thrive. Subwassertang while slow growing can reach around 10-15cm a year in diameter and it does very well free-floating or attached to things like driftwood or rocks, it can also self-attach itself to things like glass in your aquariums so think of the growth of this plant like a spreading bacteria in a culture plate, I use . The plant is also a favorite amongst shrimp as well. Subwassertang. How long can aquarium plants live without water? The ideal environment for the plant is an aquarium with a pH between 6.5 and 7.5 and temperatures between 68-78 F, but they grow best at 75 F. Ssswassertang is versatile, hardy and wonderful for beginner aquarists. Also present are broad round lobes, the tip is never truncate, and beneath these thallii are rhizoids (hairlike organs that serve as roots and helps in anchoring the plant to hardscapes or decoration. Attach divided pieces of Subwassertang to driftwood (shaped like a tree) to form a Swasser tree. You dont need to use a pH testing kit for this plant, but if you have one, try to keep it between 5.5 7.5, as these plants like. Also, it will grow stringy. It does. But I dialed it back 40% and raised it a few inches. Even biologists acknowledge the fact that they do not know much about this species, and to date, they are unaware of any record in which the gametophytes of Lomariopsis lineata have been observed naturally growing in aquatic environments. It is very easy to confuse Monosolenium tenerum with other simple thalloid liverworts. what are you dosing in this tank? They presume that Subwassertangand Lomariopsis lineata are native to tropical parts of Asia and Africa where it grows on trees and hardscapes by attaching on it firmly with its numerous rhizoids. Despite its subtropical origin, Monosolenium tenerum can easily stay alive even under colder temperatures. I know people have said that mosses will attach to glass, but I was curious about subwassertang. Therefore, you should avoid making drastic changes to the aquarium, always endeavor to maintain low medium lighting, and ensure that the tank water is clean. The plant was first discovered along the Nile River, leading to its affectionate nickname of the Nile Plant. However, its quite abundant all over the world! This plant was introduced to the aquarium hobby by Christel Kasselman after its discovery in the early 2000s, Kasselman propagated it and gave out some to other aquarists, and it continued to spread among hobbyists worldwide. If so, I have a surprise in store for you. This will ensure plants survival and rapid growth. However, since it is relatively new to the aquarium hobby, it can be difficult to find. One of our most common substrates however contains almost entirely Miracle Gro potting soil. In the wild, the species is a colonizer of moist soil in subtropical countries. Required fields are marked *. The plant can keep your aquarium water rich in oxygen by neutralizing toxins in the water. Solution: Provide optimal conditions so the plant will not grow tall. Hi Esmont, Its origin is unknown, but the best guess is Asia. Subwassertang sticks to surfaces like a small piece of wood with ease, all you need to do is to spread a little bit of Subwassertang on the piece of wood, tie the clumps with a black thread or fishing line all around it a couple of times, afterward, pass the thread through the loops to overlap all the area before you finally knot it. However, some people like to use C02 to increase the growth rate. How quickly does Subwassertang grow? Monosolenium tenerum and most types of crayfishorfreshwater crabsare not a good combination as well. If you run it full blast, yes. Faster than the scientific community could catch on! In actual sense, Subwassertangis not algae, moss or liverwort, rather it is the prothallium or gametophyte of a fern. Planting and Propagation of Subwassertang. However, Subwassertang has not been named as a distinct species yet and it cannot be expressly regarded as Lomariopsis lineata either. Hard to plant:Monosolenium tenerum does not have a well-developed root system. Also, Subwassertang has no midrib and a rounder, irregular growth pattern. It grows in any condition, but we suggest you keep lighting low-medium and pH 6-8 for this plant. I ran a CO2 line into the emersed setup just to see if it would grow faster compared to the exact same setup on the other side without CO2. Obviously, it will grow faster and bushier under optimal conditions. Red root floater is a South-American floating plant species, and its name stems from the famous bright red roots which it has. Some hobbyists tie theirs to a mat/pad slate and place them on the substrate to form carpets, they find it easier to grow it that way than just placing it directly on gravel to root. Peacock Moss. Important: You need to understand that high-light demanding plants must be balanced in terms of CO2, nutrients, and lighting. Subwassertang is suitable for almost any type of aquarium and water temperature. virgil mcdowell wife, meadowlands racetrack simulcast schedule, chicago cultural center wedding saturday,

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